A/V-아/어서 grammar = (1) and/ (in order) to, (2) because (of)/ so that

A/V-/어서 grammar = (1) and/ (in order) to, (2) because (of)/ so that

1. V-/어서 grammar = (1) and/ (in order) to


Indicate the temporal relationship between 2 related events (the 2nd action can’t occur without the 1st action) = ‘and’ / ‘(in order) to’ in English.
- is often omitted from -/어서, excepting for some verbs 
e.g. 가다 (to go) , 오다 (to come), 서다 (to stand)
Tense is expressed only in the 2nd verb, not the 1st verb.
The subject of both verbs must be the same.

Word conversion:

1. Verb ending with vowel and + 아서:
가다 -- 가서  ;  사다 -- 사서  ; 팔다 -- 팔아서
만나다 -- 만나서 ; 앉다 -- 앉아서 ; 닦다 -- 닦아서

2. Verb ending with the other vowels + 어서:
만들다 -- 만들어서 ; 씻다 -- 씻어서
먹다 -- 먹어서 ; *마시다 -- 마셔서
*쓰다 -- 써서  ; *굽다 -- 구워서
(*) irregular form

3. 하다 verb → 해서:
결혼하다 -- 결혼해서 ; 공부하다 -- 공부해서
요리하다 -- 요리해서 ; 일하다 -- 일해서


1. 원숭이가 
바나나를 까서 먹었어요.
The money peeled a banana and ate.

2. 사과를 씻어서 먹었어요.
I washed the apple and ate it.

3. 여자 친구에게 꽃을 () 주었어요.
I bought some flowers for my girlfriend and gave them to her.

4. 내일 친구를 만나서 같이 커피를 마실 거예요.
Tomorrow I will meet my friend and drink coffee together.

5.  세 시간 동안 공원에 앉아서 이야기했어요.
We sat in the park and talked for three hours.

6. 사과를 깎지 않고 먹어요?
- 사과를 깎아서 먹으면 맛이 없어요.
Why do you eat apples without peeling them?
- It is not tasty if you peel and eat.

7. 아르바이트를 해요?
- 돌을 벌어서 카메라를 거예요.
Why are you doing part-time job?
- I plan to earn some money (in order) to buy a camera.

8. 오늘 퇴근 후에 거예요?
- 노래방에 가서 노래할 거예요.
What will you do after the work today?
- I will go to the karaoke and sing.

Comparison between V- grammar and V-/어서 grammar :

1. They have the same meaning = “and” in English. But V-/어서 grammar is used when the 2 actions are closely related, while V- grammar is used to connect two unrelated actions that happen sequentially.

과일을 씻어서 ( 과일을) 먹어요.
I wash the fruit and eat (the fruit).

과일을 씻고 (다른 음식을) 먹어요.
I wash the fruit and eat (something else)

2. When verbs designate the wearing of clothes and accessories, V- is used instead of V-/어서

사람들이 우산을 쓰고 가요.
People are putting up their umbrellas and going.

네가 안경을 쓰고 책을 봐요.
I wear glasses and read books.

2. A/V-/어서 grammar = (2) because (of), so that…


Indicate the reason for the succeeding event  = “because (of)” / “so that…” in English
Can not be used in imperative or propositive sentences (e.g. 3-5)
- Tense markers such as -/- and -- can not come before -/어서 (e.g. 6)

Word conversion:

1. A/V ending with vowel and + 아서:
좁다 -- 좁아서 ; 살다 -- 살아서

2. A/V ending with the other vowels + 어서:
있다 -- 있어서 ; 길다 -- 길어서 ;
*춥다 -- 추워서 ; *듣다 -- 들어서 ; *바쁘다 -- 바빠서

3. A/V-하다 → A/V-해서:
날씬하다 -- 날씬해서 ;  청소하다 -- 청소해서


1. 만나서 반갑습니다.
Nice to meet you.

2. 늦어서 죄송합니다.
I am sorry for arriving late.

3. 신발은 커서 다른 신발을 보여 주세요. (wrong) → 신발은 크니까 다른 신발을 보여 주세요.
These shoes are big, so please show me different ones.

4. 오늘 약속이 있어서 내일 만날까요? (wrong) → 오늘 약속이 있으니까 내일 만날까요?
I have a appointment today, so how about meeting tomorrow?

5. 이게 좋아서 이걸로 삽시다. (wrong) → 이게 좋으니까 이걸로 삽시다.
I like this one, so let’s buy it.

6. 밥을 많이 먹었어서 배가 아파요. (wrong) → 밥을 많이 먹어서 배가 아파요.
I ate a lot so that my stomach hurts.

7. 이번 주말에 시간이 있어요?
- 고향에 돌아가서 시간이 없어요
Do you have time this weekend?
- I will go back to my hometown so that I don't have time.

8. 옷을 입어요?
- 옷은 작아서 입어요.
Why don't you wear these clothes?
- Those clothes are small so that I can't wear them.

1 comment:

Korean Topik said...

The grammar is updated on 22nd Sep 2023. Hope you enjoy studying at koreantopik.

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