Common connective Korean adverbs: 그래서, 그러나, 그럼, 그런데, 그래도

Common connective Korean adverbs: 그리고, 그러나, 그래서, 그럼, 그런데, 그래도

1. 그리고 = and

농구를 좋아해요. 그리고 축구도 아해요.
I like basketball. And I also like football.

주말에 친구를 만났어요. 그리고 같이 영화를 봤어요.
I met a friend on weekend. And we saw a movie together.

2. 그렇지만 = 하지만 = 그러나 = however, but

- Used when the content of the 1st sentence is in contrast with that of the 2nd sentence.
- 그렇지만 has same meaning as 하지만 and 그러나, but 하지만 is used mainly in colloquial speech, and 그러나 is used mainly in written style.

한국어는 영어와 다릅니다. 그렇지만 배우기 어렵지 않습니다.
Korean is different from English. But it is not difficult to learn.

고기를 좋아해요. 하지만 채소를 싫어요.
I like meat. But I don't like vegetables.

3. 그래서 = so

- Used when the 1st sentence is the reason or cause for the result described in the second sentence.

외국 사람입니다. 그래서 한국말을 못 합니다.
I am a foreigner, so I can't speak Korean.

퇴근 시간이에요. 그래서 길이 막혀요.
It's rush hour so there's a lot of traffic.

4. 그러니까 = therefore, so

- User when the 1st sentence is inevitable or natural reason for the 2nd sentence.
- 그러니까 is often followed by (으)세요, (으)ㅂ시다, 아/어야 하다, or (으)ㄹ 거다.

비가 와요. 그러니까 우산을 가져가세요.
It's raining. Therefore, take an umbrella with you.

이 영화는 재미없어요. 그러니까 다른 영화를 봅시다.
This movie is boring. So, let's see another movie.

자동차가 고장 났어요. 그러니까 버스를 타야 해요.
The car broke down, so we have to the bus.

5. 그러면 = 그럼 = then

- Used when the 1st sentence is the assumption behind the 2nd sentence
- 그럼 is often used in colloquial speech in stead of 그러면

나는 피곤할 때 목욕을 해요. 그러면 기본이 좋아져요.
When I am tired, I take a bath. Then I feel better.

점심시산이에요. 배가 고파요.
- 그럼 같이 식당에 가서 식사할까요?
It's lunchtime. I am hungry.
- Then, shall we go to a restaurant and have lunch together.

6. 그런데 = (1) however, (2)and then, (3) by the way

- (1) Used when the 1st and 2nd sentence are in contrast = 그렇지만 = however

아버지는 키가 작아요. 그런데 아들은 키가 커요.
The father is short. However his son is tall.

- (2) Used when the 1st sentence provides background information for the 2nd sentence = and then

어제 대전 시청에 갔어요. 그런데 거기에서 대통령을 봤러요.
I went to the Daejeon government complex yesterday. And then I saw the president there.

- (3) Used when the speaker gives a new topic rather than talking about the topic under discussion = by the way

올해 나이가 어떻게 되세요?
- 네? 저, 그런데 지금 몇 시예요?
How old are you this year?
- Pardon? I, by the way, what time is it now?

7. 그래도 = but (still), nevertheless

- Used to indicate what is stated in the 2nd sentence is true regardless of what is stated in the 1st sentence.

아까 밥을 많이 먹였어요. 그래도 배가 고파요.
I ate so much a little while ago. But I am still hungry.

5년 동안 한국에서 살았어요. 그래도 아직 한국말을 잘 못해요.
I lived in Korea for 5 years. But I still can't speak Korean well.

그 여자는 나를 좋아하지 않아요. 그래도 나는 그 여자를 좋아해요.
That girl doesn't like me. But I still like her.

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