A/V-기에 grammar = 1) since, because; 2) good/bad/... for, to

기에 grammar = (1) since, because ~express reason or cause; (2) (good, bad…) for, to ~express opinion about the work of doing an action


Usage 1:

- 기에 grammar is used to express that the preceding clause is the cause, reason, or basis for the following clause. = because, since

마트에서 과일을 싸게 팔기에 좀 많이 샀어요.

Fruit was sold cheaply at the supermarket, so I bought a lot.

- 기에 grammar is mainly used in written language and formal situations.

- 기에 grammar can be used interchangeably with -길래 grammar. -기에 is often used in writing or formal speech while -길래 is mostly used in spoken language.


Usage 2:

- 기에 grammar is also used to express the speaker’s opinion or experience (good, bad, tired, difficult, convenient...) about the work of doing an action = (good, bad, difficult …) for, to

지하철역이 가까워서 살기에 편해요.

Since the subway station is near, so it is comfortable for living.

- It often goes with adjectives such as (기에) 좋다, (기에) 나쁘다, (기에) 힘들다, (기에) 어렵다, (기에) 편하다, etc.



Adjective/Verb + 기에 (Present tense)

좋다 -> 좋기에

살다 -> 살기에

드리다 -> 드리기에

보이다 -> 보이기에


Adjective/Verb + //였기에 (Past tense)

좋다 -> 좋았기에

살다 -> 살았기에

드리다 -> 드렸기에

보이다 -> 보였기에


Adjective/Verb + 겠기에 (Future tense)

좋다 -> 좋겠기에

살다 -> 살겠기에

드리다 -> 드리겠기에

보이다 -> 보이겠기에


Noun + 기에 = (Present tense)

아이 -> 아이기에

방책 -> 방책이기에


Noun + 였기에/이었기에 = (Past tense)

아이 -> 아이였기에

방책 -> 방책이었기에


Noun + ()겠기에 = (Future tense)

의자 -> 의자겠기에

방책 -> 방책이겠기에 


Specific usage 1:

1. 기에 grammar can be used interchangeably with -길래 grammar. -기에 is often used in writing while -길래 is mostly used in spoken language.


비가 많이 오기에 우산을 갖고 왔어요.

= 비가 많이 오길래 우산을 갖고 왔어요.

I brought an umbrella because it was raining heavily.


2. If something heard from someone else forms the reason or cause for the following action, the quotation form -()ㄴ다기에 is used.

비가 온다기에 우산을 들고 나왔는데 맑기 하네요.

I brought out an umbrella because I heard it was raining, but it is sunny.


3. Imperative and propositive forms are not used with -기에.

값이 너무 싸기에 하나 살까요? (X) / 사세요. (X)

-> 값이 너무 싸기에 하나 살까 해요. ()

I am thinking of buying another one because it's so cheap.



Usage 1: -기에 = because, since

1. 집에 음식이 떨어져 가기에 장을 보러 갔다. (떨어져 가다 = run out, 장을 보다 =  to go grocery shopping)

I went for grocery shopping because the food at home is running out.


2. 한국 문화가 좋아 보이기에 한국어를 공부하게 되었다.

I started studying Korean because I liked Korean culture.


3. 비가 오기에 친구와 만남 약속을 취소했다.

I canceled my appointment with my friend because it was raining.


4. 마감 일을 맞추겠기에 친구에게 도와 달라고 했다. (마감 = deadline)

Since I can’t meet the deadline, I asked my friend for help.


5. 일이 너무 많아서 수지 같이 하자고 했다.

I had a lot of work to do, so I asked Suzy to do it together.


6. 사람들이 모금 활동에 적극 참여했기에 목표 금액을 달성되었다. (모금 = fundraising)

The target amount was achieved because people actively participated in fundraising activities.


7. 오전에 민아 씨한테 뭐라고 하셨다면서요?

- , 꼼꼼하지 못하고 하도 덜렁대기에 뭐라고 했습니다. (덜렁대다 = clumsy, sloppy)

I heard you said something to Miss Mina in the morning.

- Yes, she was a bit careless and clumsy, so I said something.


8. 얼마 전에 사무실 사람들에게 한마디 하셨다면서요?

- , 최근에 지각들이 하도 잦기에 한마디 했어요.

Did you say something to the office staffs recently?

- Yes, some have been late so often lately, so I said a few words.


Usage 2: -기에 = (good, bad, convenient…) for, to 


1. 여행처럼 스트레스를 풀기에 좋은 없어요.

There is nothing good for releasing stress like travel.


2. 제주도는 경치가 아름답고 볼거리가 많아서 여행하기에 좋아요.

Jeju island is beautiful and has a lot of attractions, so it is good for travelling.


3. 부산은 서울에서 멀어서 하루에 갔다 오기에 힘들어요.

Since Busan is far from Seoul, so it is difficult to transport in a day.


4. 집이 조금 좁아서 여섯 식구가 살기에 힘들 거예요.

The house is a little small, so it will be difficult for six family members to live in.


5. 사람이 먹기에 부족한 같으니까 조금 시킵시다.

It seems not enough food for four people, so let's order a little more.


6. 강원도에서 해수욕장가 예뻐서 여름휴가를 가기에 좋아요.

The beach in Gangwon-do is beautiful, so it's good for summer vacation.


7. 회사가 집에서 가까워요?

- , 가까워서 출퇴근하기에 편해요.

Is your company close to home?

- Yes, it's close, so it's convenient for commuting.

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