KIIP Level 4 Grammars Review - by Korean TOPIK

KIIP 4 Grammar Review:

Click on each corresponding grammar to see more details.  Note: N = noun , V = verb, A = adjective

Xem giải thích ngữ pháp bằng tiếng Việt ở đây: Tổng hợp ngữ pháp lớp KIIP4 Trung Cấp 2 - Korean TOPIK

11 N()야말로 grammar = to emphasize the preceding noun, which is the best among other possible choices = just, really, indeed, exactly, certainly.

사랑이야말로 결혼 생활에서 가장 중요한 것이다.
Love is definitely the most important thing in marriage life.

12 V()려던 참이다 grammar = Express that the speaker is intending to do something being suggested or is just about to do it very soon = was about to do

배가 고파서 라면이라도 끓여 먹으려던 참이다.
I am hungry, so I am about to cook instant noodle to eat.

21 얼마나 V/A()ㄴ지/는지 모르다 grammar = Use to emphasize an action or a state of affairs = don't know that .... really A/V... = extremely (like, interesting, good,...)

아기가 우유를 얼마나 먹는지 몰라요.
I didn’t know that the baby really drinks that much milk.

22 V/A-ㄴ데도/는데도 grammar = Use to introduce an opposite situation in the 2nd clause compared to the 1st clause. The phrase 불구하고 can be added after -()/는데도 to further emphasize contrast. = although...., despite..., but...

매일 연습했는데도 시험이 아직 떨어졌어요
Although I practiced every day, I still failed the exam.

31 V/A() 몰랐다/알았다 grammar = Express something that speaker was not aware of or did not anticipate (A/V + / 몰랐다) = I didn’t know that ... OR express the speaker’s realization that his/her assumption was incorrect (A/V + / 알랐다) = I thought that....

인터넷 뱅킹이 이렇게 편리할 몰랐어요.
I didn’t know that internet banking is so convenient.

32 V 하다 grammar = (1) force /make/ask someone do something, (2) allow /permit someone do something

아이가 몸이 약하면 음식을 골고루 먹게 하세요.
When the child is weak, let him eat the food evenly.
선생님이 학생에게 책을 읽게 하셨어요.
The teacher asked the student to read the book.

41 V/A-대요 grammar = Use to retell what you have heard or read from someone/somewhere. It is the contracted form of -다고 하다  (→대요) and mostly used in speaking.

신문을 읽었는데 요즘 혼자 사는 1 가구가 많대요.
I read newpapers and heard that single-person households are many these days.

42 V()래요 grammar = Use to retell someone’s request or order. It is the shortened form of '()라고 하다' (→래요), and mostly used in speaking.

부모님은 저한테 스무 살이 넘었으니까 독립하래요.
My parents told me to be indepedent since I am already 20 years old.

51 사동사/ causative verbs = (1) N-/ V-////= Make/let/cause someone do something OR (2) N에게 N/ V-//// = someone do something for/to someone

매일 엄마가 아이를 씻겨요.
Mom washes her baby daily.
아침마다 아내가 남편을 깨워요.

The wife wake the husband up each morning.

52 V-도록 grammar = V- 위해서 grammar = V - 위하여 grammar = V- 하다 grammar = Indicate that the action (1st clause) is necessary to realize the goal (2nd clause) = so that, in order to.

아이가 학교에 늦지 않도록 일찍 깨웠어요.
I woke the kid early in order to not be late.

61 V/A() 수록 grammar = Use to emphasize when a situation becomes better or worser = the more A/V, the more A/V.

사람의 첫인상은 별로 좋았는데 만날수록 좋아지네요.
The first impression of that person is not so good, but the more I meet, the better it is.

62 A() 보다 / V 보다 grammar = Use to express one’s thought or conjecture based on the possible cause of a situation = I guess, I suppose, it seems that

부장님은 매일 술을 드시네요. 술을 좋아하시나 봐요.
Kim manager drinks alcohol everyday. I guess he likes alcohol.

71 V/A 든지 V/A 든지 grammar = Used to express any choices are fine = whether...or…

회식에 가든지 말든지 마음대로 하세요.
Whether going for the company dining or not, it’s up to you.

72 V/A더라도 grammar = Used to when the event in the first clause has no influence over the result in the second clause (the result would remain unchanged) = even if

실험에 떨어지더라도 실망하지 마세요.
Even if you fail the exam, don’t be disappointed.

81 V 바람에 grammar = The 1st clause describes a unexpected/unintended reason or cause that negatively influences the 2nd clause = as a result of, because of (something negative in nature)..., so

휴대 전화가 갑자기 고장 나는 바람에 연락을 못했어요.
My phone was suddenly broken, so I can’t contact anyone.

82 V 김에 grammar = Used when the 1st action (1st clause) raises an opportunity or condition for the 2nd action (2nd clause ) = while you are at it.... ; since you are already doing ...

마트에서 우유를 사는 김에 빵도 사요.
While I buy some milk at the mart, I also buy some bread.

91 V느니 차라리 grammar = Express that you would rather do the 2nd action over the 1st action, 차라리 means ‘rather’ and makes it more emphatic. 차라리 can be replaced by 보다 without meaning change. 겠다 is often used in the grammar = I would rather...

맛이 없는 음식을 먹느니 차라리 저녁을 먹을래요.
I would rather not eat the dinner than eat the tasteless food.

92 V/A더니 grammar = (1) State a reason that was witnessed in the past affecting the present result = and now, and as a result. (2) Express a contrast in the past and the current state of affairs = but now...

메이 씨가 다어어트를 하더니 날씬해졌네요. (1)
Mai was on a diet, and now she became slim.

어제는 춥더니 오늘은 날씨가 좋아요. (2)
The weather was cold yesterday, but now is good.

111 V/A/는다면서요 grammar = Use for friends or juniors to confirm something that you have heard or learned from somewhere= is it true that...? I heard that ..., right?

케이블 방송은 따로 신청을 해야지 있다면서요?
Is it true that cable broadcasting can be applied separately?

112 V/A/는다니까 grammar = Use to quote something that you knew or heard from somewhere as a reason for the following behavior/action. = Since I heard that ...

: 내일 같이 공원에 가서 자전거를 탈까요?
: 내일은 비가 온다니까 다음에 갑시다.
A: Shall we go to the park tomorrow with our bikes?
B: Since I heard that it will rain tomorrow, let’s go later.

- (1) Indicate that a certain characteristic of the preceding noun is true in all cases. = all, among ~ entirely... without exception 
- (2) Indicate that the preceding noun is an exception to the general rule for its kind. = among, for, except for ~ exceptively.

한국 사람치고 노래를 모르는 사람이 없다. (1)
There isn’t a Korean who does not know that song.
모델치고는 키가 작은 편이에요. (2)
For a model, she is rather short.

(1) Express a new finding or discovery after doing something in the past = and I found that
(2) Indicate that the past action is the reason or cause for the following one. = so now, and so

극장에 갔더니 사람이 많았어요. (1)
I went to the cinema and found that there were a lot of people.
주말에 야근하느라 쉬었더니 너무 피곤해요. (2)
Since I worked overtime in weekend, I couldn’t take a rest, so I am very tired.

131 V() 래야 V () 없다 grammar = Express the intention to do something but could not succeed for some reason = I intended/tried to... but couldn’t...
Sentence structure:(1) Give the reason first + (2) state the intention before 을래야 + (3) state the result before 없다.

너무 시끄러워서 잠이 들을래야 잠이 수가 없었어요.
It was too noisy so I tried to sleep but couldn’t.

132 V/A길래 grammar = To express or ask for the reason why an action is done = because, since... ;

돈을 써버렸길래 라면을 먹어야 돼요.
I spent all my money, so I have to eat instant noodle.

141 V/A-았더라면/었더라면 grammar = Express the speaker’s feelings about a past situation when hypothesizing a past situation that the result was opposite to what actually happened = If I had…, I would have...

최선을 다했더라면 목표를 이뤘을 거예요.
If I had done my best, I would have achieved my goal.

142 V/A-/는다면 grammar = Express an assumption or a condition (1st clause) for the following situation to occur (2nd clause), however the probability of occurring is very low or improbable. = If..., I will/would

열심히 노력한다면 꿈을 실현할 있습니다.
If you work diligently, you can realize your dream.

151 V/A() 리가 없다 grammar = Express a doubt in the possibility of an action or a state = there is no reason to, can’t be

그렇게 책임감이 있는 사람이 포기했을 리가 없다.
A person with such a responsibility can’t give up.

152 V/A () 마나 grammar = Express that whether you perform the action or not, the result is the same. = no matter whether or not you do... ; there is no point doing...

: 이번 대통령 선거에 어떤 후보가 당선될까요?
: 결과를 보나 마나 기호 1번이 당선될 거예요.
A: In this presidential election, do you think who will be elected?
B: No matter whether or not you see the result, the 1st candidate will be elected.

16과1 N(으)로 인해(서) grammar = Expressing a noun is the reason or cause for an action to happen. It is mostly used for negative results, but can also be used for positive results.  = due to, as a result of ...

자동차의 증가로 인해 대기오염 문제가 심각해지고 있습니다.
Due to the increase of cars, air pollution problem is getting serious.

162 V/A() 뿐만 아니라 grammar = Used to express the two or more characteristics (either pros or cons) of a certain subject. = not only ... but also...

제주도는 경치도 아름다운 뿐만 아니라 맛있는 먹거리도 많이 있습니다,
Jeju island is not only having beautiful scenes but also having many tasty foods.

171 V 하다 grammar = Express a habitual action of the present or the past = (present) often, from time to time; (past) used to

저는 어렸을 여름마다 가족하고 해수욕장에 가곤 했어요.
When I was young, I used to go to the beach with my family.

172 V기에 grammar = Express the speaker’s opinion or experience about the work of doing an action (like good, bad, tired, difficult, convenient...). The expression often goes with adjectives like좋다, 나쁘다, 힘들다, 어렵다, 편하다... = for...

여행처럼 스트레스를 풀기에 좋은 없죠.
There is nothing good for releasing stress like travel.

181 V/A() 지도 모르다 grammar = Used to express speaker’s view that something might or likely to happen = might, likely, ...

의학 기술이 발달하면 평균수명이 100세가 될지도 몰라요.
When medical technology is developed, the averaged lifespan might be 100 years old.

182 V/A()/ 셈이다 grammar = Used when saying something roughly by calculation = you could say, almost

토요일만 빼고 일을 하고 있으니까 거의 날마다 일하는 셈이에요.
Since I works everyday except for Saturday, I could say I work everyday.

191 V/A 마련이다 grammar = Express that something is obvious or natural in a certain way = naturally, bound to
교통 규칙을 어기면 법칙금을 내기 마련이에요.
If you violate the traffic rule, you are bound to pay the fine.

192 V/A() 탓에 grammar = Express cause or reason of a negative consequence = due to, because

밥을 많이 먹은 탓에 배탈이 났어요.
I have got a stomach ache due to overeating.

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