A/V-기는커녕, N-은/는커녕 grammar = let alone, never mind, instead of ~express negation by emphasizing the preceding statement

기는커녕, N-/는커녕 grammar = let alone, never mind, instead of ~imply negation by emphasizing the preceding statement



- (1) 는커녕 grammar is used to imply negation that not only the preceding clause is impossible, but the following clause, which is simpler and easier, is also impossible. = let alone…, never mind…, don’t even say…

- (1) The expression is usually expressed in this form:

A-기는커녕 B(조차) -/ -/ 없다 = Let alone A, even B is not possible

- (2) 는커녕 grammar is also used to express that, rather than the expected or anticipated situation occurring in the preceding clause, a different or opposite situation occurs in the following clause. = let alone…, rather than…, instead of…, far from…

- (2) The expression is often used with 오히려 (rather, instead) to emphasize the opposite:

A-기는커녕 (오히려) B … = Let alone A, B happens (opposite)

- 는커녕 is mainly used in speech between peers or friends, not used in communication with superiors or elders.



Verb/Adjective + 기는커녕 + negation (, , 없다) / opposite situation (오히려)

가다 -> 가기는커녕 (let alone go…)

살다 -> 살기는커녕 (let alone live…)

공부하다 -> 공부하기는커녕 (let alone study…)

운동하다 -> 운동하기는커녕 (let alone exercise…)

빠르다 -> 빠르기는커녕 (let alone be fast)

크다 -> 크기는커녕 (let alone be big)

행복하다 -> 행복하기는커녕 (let alone be happy)


Noun + /는커녕 + negation (, , 없다) / opposite situation (오히려)

-> 돈은커녕 (let alone money)

제주 -> 제주는커녕 (let alone Jeju)

사랑 -> 사랑은커녕 (let alone love)

칭찬 -> 칭찬은커녕 (let alone compliment)

불고기 -> 불고기는커녕 (let alone beef)

Specific usage:

1. A/V-는커녕, N-/는커녕 can be replaced by A/V- 것은 고사하고, N-/ 고사하고 without meaning change.


냉장고에 우유는커녕 물도 없어요.

냉장고에 우유는 고사하고 물도 없어요.

In the fridge, there’s even no water, let alone milk.


그는 밥은커녕 먹었어요.

그는 밥은 고사하고 죽도 먹었어요.

He couldn't even eat porridge, let alone rice.


일이 많아서 휴가를 가기는커녕 휴일도 없어요.

일이 많아서 휴기를 가는 것은 고사하고 휴일도 없엉요.

I have a lot of work, so I don't even have a holiday, let alone a vacation.



(Usage 1) A-기는커녕 B(조차) -/ -/ 없다 = Let alone A, (even) B is not possible


1. 요즘은 손님은커녕 문의 전화도 없어요.

These days, there is not even an inquiry call, let alone a customer.


2. 소주는커녕 맥주도 마셔요.

I can't drink beer, let alone soju.


3. 만원은커녕 천원도 없어요.

I don’t even have 1000 won, let alone 10000 won.


4. 목이 아파서 밥은커녕 물조차 마실 없어요.

Because my throat hurts, I can't even drink water, let alone food.


5. 그는 다른 사람을 돕기는커녕 자신의 일도 제대로 못해요.

He doesn't do his job well, let alone help others.


6. 택시는커녕 버스를 타고 돈도 없어요.

I don't even have the money to go by bus, let alone by taxi.


7. 할머니는 PC는커녕 휴대폰도 없어요.

Grandma doesn't even have a cell phone, let alone a PC.


8. 집을 사기는커녕 월세 돈도 없어요.

I don't even have the money to pay the monthly rent, let alone buy a house.


9. 김치찌개 끓일 있어요?

- 아니요. 김치찌개는커녕 밥도 끓여요.

Can I cook kimchi stew?

- No. I can't even cook rice, let alone kimchi stew.


(Usage 2) A-기는커녕 (오히려) B = Let alone A, B happens (opposite)

1. 칭찬은커녕 야단만 맞았어요.

I was scolded, let alone praised.


2. 그는 내일이 시험인데 공부하기는커녕 게임만 하고 있어요.

He has an exam tomorrow, but he's just playing games rather than studying


3. 그녀는 고마워하기는커녕 오히려 나를 비난했어.

Instead of thanking her, she criticized me.


4. 돈이 남기는커녕 모자라서 보탰어요.

Instead of having money left, I added because of lacking money.


5. 날씨가 좋기는커녕 구름이 많이 꼈어요.

Let alone a nice weather, it was cloudy.


6. 인터넷이 빠르기는커녕 자꾸 끊겨요.

Far from being fast, the internet keeps interrupting.


7. 열심히 공부했는데도 성적이 오르기는커녕 오히려 떨어졌어요.

Even though I studied hard, my grades did not go up, but rather fell further.


8. 방학 동안 돈을 많이 벌었겠네요?

- 돈을 벌기는커녕 여행을 갔다오느라 있는 돈도 썼어요.

You must have made a lot of money during vacation.

- Instead of making money, I used up all the money I had from traveling.

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