N(으)로 and N쯤 grammars = to/by/using, about/around ~direction, means, and approximation particles

N(으)로, N쯤 direction and approximation particles in Korean = to/by/using, about/around ~direction, means, and approximation particles

1. N(으)로 particle =  ‘to/toward’ or ‘by/using/from’ in English

- (1) Express a direction = ‘to’ or ‘toward’
- (2) Express means of transport, tools, or materials used to make something = ‘by’, ‘using’, ‘with’, or ‘from’

Noun ending in vowel or ㄹ + 로:
버스로 가요. = go by bus
배로 왔어요. = came by vessel
한국말로 하세요. = please speak in Korean
칼로 잘라요. = cut using knife

Noun ending in consonant + 으로:
왼쪽으로 /오른쪽으로 가세요. = please go to the left/to the right.
콩으로 만들었어요. = made from bean.
젓가락으로 먹어요. = eat using chopsticks.


1. 저기에서 오른쪽으로 가세요. 은행이 나와요.
Please go to the right from there. You will see a bank.

2. 인천에서 제주도까지 비행기로 가요.
I go from Incheon to Jeju by airplane.

3. 가위로 종이를 잘라요.
I cut the paper with scissors.

4. 쌀로 떡을 만들었어요.
I made tteok (rice) cake from rice.

5. 밀가루로 빵을 만들어요.
I made bread from flour.

6. 이 과자가 맛있어요. 뭐로 만들었어요?
- 이 과자는 찹쌀로 만들었어요.
This biscuit is good. What's it made of?
- It is made of sticky rice.

7. 대전에서 분산에 어떻게 가요?
- 버스로 가세요. 버스 시간표가 편해요.
How do you go from Daejeon to Busan?
- Please go by bus. Its time schedule is comfortable.

8. 실례합니다. 우체국이 어디에 있어요?
- 저 약국 앞에서 오른쪽으로 가세요.
Excuse me. Where is the post office?
- Please go to the right from the pharmacy over there.

Comparison between  -(으)로 가다 and -에 가다.

1. -(으)로 가다 = focus on direction.
2. -에 가다 = focus on destination.

2. N쯤 particle = “about” or “around” in English.

Usage :
- Added to nouns, quantities, and time to indicate approximation = ‘about’ or ‘around’
- When it is referring to prices N쯤 하다 is used more often than N쯤이다.


1. 모임에 10명쯤 왔어요.
About 10 persons came to the meeting.

2. 서울역에 10시쯤 도착했어요.
I arrived at the Seoul station around 10 o'clock.

3. 사과가 요즘 얼마쯤 해요?
- 요즘 5개에 5000원쯤 해요.
About how much are apples these days?
- They cost about 5000 won for 5 these days.

4. 서울에서 분산까지 기차로 가면 얼마쯤 해요?
- 글쎄요. 3만원쯤 할 거예요.
About how much to go from Seoul to Busan by train?
- Well. It is about 30k won.

5. 한국에 언제 오셨어요?
- 2년 전쯤 왔어요.
When did you come to Korea?
- I came about 2 years ago.

1 comment:

Korean Topik said...

The grammar is updated on 14 May 2023. Hope you enjoy studying at koreantopik.com

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